Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) is an organic compound that poses toxic risks to any person who inhales or ingests it, intentionally or unintentionally. Furthermore, humans can be affected by PCBs through direct contact or consumption of contaminated animals. In order to inform and preserve the people’s health, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted an analysis of tests regarding PCBs potential to cause cancer.
The molecular structure of PCBs does not break down, therefore it persists in the environment regardless of when it was first emitted. Unfortunately, companies in the past, such as Monsanto, have produced liquids that expose the chemical to humans. Monsanto PCBs can lead to detrimental health problems depending on the severity of exposure.
The EPA conducted an inclusive analysis, of which the evidence suggested that PCBs cause cancer in animals. Through research and referencing an experimental study performed on laboratory rats, the EPA was able to determine what PCB mixtures are the most dangerous, and which methods of exposure pose the highest risks.
After analyzing the study on animals, the EPA continued to discuss the PCBs carcinogenicity for humans. Overall, the evidence proved “inconclusive” due to outside factors, such as an inability to correctly identify exposure levels, inadequate sample sizes, and each subject’s amount they smoke, or drink. Because these studies are limited in nature, the EPA was only able to identify a “probable” link between PCBs and cancer.
Overall, evidence suggested a definite link with PCBs ability to cause cancer in animals, and a “probable” link with their carcinogenicity for humans. Supporting these findings, the International Agency for Cancer Research and the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health cite a “probable” and “potential” link, respectively, and the National Toxicology Program finds a “reasonable” one.
Morning sickness, which is referred to in the medical community as nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP), is a problem common to most pregnant women. According to researchers from the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior at Cornell University, around 80 percent or two-thirds of women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester of their pregnancy. It also varies in their degree of intensity. Some women experience symptoms that are mild and can increase in severity over the course of the day. There are also women who experience frequent vomiting and electrolyte imbalance.
Mild cases of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy can be solved through some dietary and lifestyle changes. The American Pregnancy Association suggests the following tips that could help alleviate your discomfort:
- Eat small but frequent meals to keep your blood sugar at an even level
- Keep soda crackers by your bed side and eat a few before getting up in the morning
- Consistently drink fluids in small amounts to avoid getting dehydrated
- Try to drink fluids before meals to keep your stomach from getting too full when you eat
- Avoid fatty foods and focus on eating food with protein and carbohydrates instead.
- Soothe an upset stomach by eating bland or salty foods. Drinking lemonade or ginger ale can also help.
- Take prenatal vitamins and other supplements before going to bed.
- Avoid strenuous and stressful activities in the morning.
- Try to rest and nap as much as you can.
- Stay in rooms that are well-ventilated to avoid feeling nauseous from particular odors.
With more severe cases of vomiting during pregnancy, medication might be necessary to mitigate the dangers it could cause. Dehydration that results from frequent vomiting might require a hospital stay to help replenish fluids and nutrients you’ve lost. There are also some doctors who might prescribe medication to treat intense symptoms. Drugs are typically prescribed to pregnant women after proper consultation.
It’s important to note that some medication for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy can cause serious side effects. Zofran, for example, has been reportedly linked to several cases of birth defects. According to the website of Zofran lawyers of Williams Kherkher, these cases involve long-term health conditions like congenital heart failure. As such, you should never use drugs to treat symptoms without asking your doctor first.
The option of relocating has been getting easier and easier as of recent years. Some couples find that they no longer have a need to maintain such a large home with all the things that come with it – perhaps the kids have moved out, perhaps it is no longer financially advisable. There might be families that find they have to from state to state on a regular basis, thereby rendering them without an actual, proper permanent residence.
Not even just private citizens have this dilemma as there are some small businesses that also need places to store their equipment for possible further use, such as that of small production companies that may need to stock their equipment and props for future projects. Either way, there has been a demand for a space that need not be inhabited but just protected enough in order to store goods. Storage, really – a warehouse without all the bric-a-brac that comes with having to manage such a large facility. This demand has given birth to that of the self-storage facility industry.
Units of various sizes and states are offered by self-storage facilities as a place where people may deposit their goods for safe keeping for a certain amount of time. The space is rented for an affordable price and the payment method can often be arranged, suiting the needs of the owner. Storing your valuable goods in these spaces can often be more beneficial for your things in the long run as, when stored in facilities like this, your goods are kept well-guarded from not only thieves but also against the uncontrollable forces. They can weather out any sort of weather, whether it be a burning hundred degrees or below freezing, your goods have the option of a climate controlled unit, if that is what you should desire.
Visit a Mopac storage website for more information on what kind of self-storage deal would be the best suited for your lifestyle.
Unlike most residents in other states, many landowners in Texas know about mineral rights; the rich oil and natural gas deposits in the area has made that inevitable. They are also aware that they have the option to sell minerals rights or lease them. What they may not be sure of is whether they should sell or lease.
Selling mineral rights is pretty much like selling any kind of real property. Once you sign the deed of sale, it passes out of your hands. This is not necessarily a bad thing; you get a hefty chunk of change and you don’t have to think about doing anything about your mineral rights anymore. On the other hand, you may regret your decision because you may have been sitting on a fortune once the mining starts.
You could lease it out instead, and hope that the developer hits pay dirt and you would be entitled to royalties (make sure your lease agreement is looked over by a mineral rights lawyer!). The upside of this is that whether your developer acts on the lease or not, you get a monthly payment per acre. The downside is you will not have to option to sell until after the lease expires, which can be a problem when you need the money fast.
If you live in an area that is known to have good sub-surface minerals, then you can probably get a very good price for either selling or leasing. If you are considering a sale, make sure that you do your research and open it up to many interested parties so that you can bid them up. You could list your mineral rights with a mineral rights auction house to get the best deal.
On the other hand, there is no certainty about the value of your mineral rights, you may want to consider leasing them first. You can always decide to sell later when you have more leverage. It is important to note, though, that a drop in the demand for specific minerals can pull down the value of your mineral rights. It is best to lock in a good offer as soon as possible, whether selling or leasing.
It can be one of the hardest things in the world to have to deal with – living with a defective heart. Unlike your tonsils or appendix, you cannot proceed with your daily life as regularly as you might like if you have a faulty heart. In fact – you can live the rest of your entire life without your tonsils or your appendix. Should your heart, however, not function the way it should – it will have very real, tangible consequences upon your daily life for the rest of your life.
An example of which is congenital heart defect, otherwise known as congenital heart anomaly. This kind of defect can create heart murmurs, therefore giving the person an irregular or abnormal blood flow. Many birth defect-related deaths are due to a defective, or otherwise malfunctioning, heart. Sometimes, this affliction cannot be helped due to genetics. However, according to the website of Williams Kherkher, there are some cases when this kind of defect (among others) is due to exposure to a drug commercially known as Zofran.
Zofran, also called ondansetron, is a pharmaceutical drug that is often used to treat nausea in some patients. Some side effects can include constipation, fatigue, lethargy, and migraines, among others. It differs from person to person. This drug is usually prescribed to patients with cancer as they are being treated by chemotherapy or via radiation, wherein nausea is a common side effect. Pregnant women also suffer this kind of temporary, but dangerous, affliction during the course of their pregnancy (also known as “morning sickness”). There are some currently on-going studies that link certain cases of birth defects, inclusive of congenital heart defect and cleft lip and palate, with the fetus’ exposure to Zofran during the early stages of development while still in the womb.
If you or someone you know has been a victim of a similar circumstance, it is best for legal aid to be sought in order to know what rights you are given in a court of law with regard to your current predicament.
Based on the 2013 report of the US Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics there are 14.5 million wage and salary workers belonging to at least 60 different labor unions all across the US. The list of members include office workers, construction workers, factory workers, plumbers, nurses, doctors, pharmacists, actors, mechanics, engineers, writers, teachers, IT/computer professionals, airline pilots, police officers, government workers, and so forth.
It was in 1866 when the National Labor Union (NLU), the first union in the US, was founded. Many others got to be established, including the American Federation of Labor (AFL) which earned success in its negotiations for the wage increase of its members as well as in improving safety in the workplace.
The establishment of labor unions has greatly helped in improving the lives of workers and their families. By simply becoming a member, a worker can be assured of the following benefits:
- Wage that is higher by as much as 30% compared to non-union members
- Discounts in many different types of services and establishments
- An 8-hour work day and weekends without work
- Sick leave, paid vacation, overtime pay and holiday pay
- Lunch breaks and other breaks at work
- Compensation increases and evaluations
- Protection through anti- discrimination laws, whistleblower protection law and wrongful termination law
- Employer health care insurance, workers’ compensation insurance benefits and social security benefits
- Employer dental, life, and vision insurance
- The right to strike
Workers, however, are not the only ones benefiting greatly from unions; the nation’s economy too. This is because labor unions help business firms grow, become more profitable and remain competitive by helping lower employee turnover, ensure higher productivity, create a better-trained and more competitive workforce, improve communication in the workplace, ensure quality of product and service, and make the workplace healthy and safe.
Since the basic and essential concerns of a union revolve around many different legal issues centered on employment, knowledge of employment laws and all aspects of employment is a must to all its officers. But there are many times too when the help of a good labor and employment lawyer becomes necessary due to the complexities of employment laws and proper dealing with government agencies.
The website of labor and employment law firm Cary Kane (http://www.carykanelegal.com/) talks about the many legal concerns a union will need to face and address.
It appears that inherent dangers are not the only thing that plagues GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) with its antidepressant product Plaxil, also known as paroxetine which part of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of drugs. With $1 Billion already set aside to settle thousands of lawsuits which according to the website of law firm Pohl & Berk addressed the alleged misrepresentation by the drug maker about the efficacy and safety of the drug, GSK is now footing the bill for a massive recall of several batches of Paxil made in their Cork, Ireland manufacturing plant.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) informed GSK in a letter that as per their October 2013 inspection of the facilities in Ireland, there problems in the process – so-called manufacturing deviations — which could potentially contaminate certain batches of paroxetine, the active ingredient in Paxil, from the manufacturing waste tank. GSK was forced to issue a Class 3 (from wholesalers) recall or risk getting disapprove for new or supplemental applications as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturer by the FDA. The warning letter gave GSK until April 9, 2014 to respond. The Paxil recall was issued bare weeks after GSK had issued a recall of another of its products, weight-loss drug Orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin) for suspected tampering issues.
Product liability is basically divided into two major issues: defective design or defective manufacturing. In the former category, the product is deemed to be inherently harmful because of its design or components even if it is properly manufactured and used. In the latter, the process is flawed in some way, bestowing harmful characteristics to an otherwise safe product. In the case of Paxil, GSK has sustained losses due to both categories.
GSK claims that while it is issuing the recall pursuant to the terms of the FDA warning letter, the product included in the recalled batches does not pose any increased threat of harm to patients. This is based on their medical assessment of samples of the finished product from these batches. Even if this claim turns out to be accurate, GSK has a duty to ensure that their products are safe in both design and manufacture. Any injury that results from either makes the drug maker liable in civil court.
Light is such a mysterious and incredible phenomena. It has the properties of both a wave and a particle. Its speed has been called a “cosmic speed limit” as scientists have determined that nothing can travel faster than light. Just how fast is light exactly?
The most straightforward answer is 299,792, 458 m/s, which is ~670 million miles an hour. This is mind-bogglingly fast!
Light is the reason vision is possible to begin with. When your eyes pick something up, what they are really seeing is light that has hit the object that bounced off of it and into the eyes. Because of this, when you see something, you are seeing it as it was in the indescribably recent past.
When you think about objects traveling faster than light with an understanding of how your vision works, it presents strange problems. Because this hypothetical object is moving faster than the light being reflected off of it as it approaches, for observers at its destination, it would theoretically appear to pop out of thin air. It gets even more confusing when such an object simply never stops moving.
For more information on what should theoretically happen to objects that supersede the speed of light, check out this article on Tachyons from Wikipedia.
Patients seeking respite from depression often turn to antidepressant prescription medication. Psychiatrists typically recommend dual treatment plans that include psychiatric sessions and antidepressants for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The combined therapy is useful in helping patients quickly achieve and maintain feelings of well-being.
Prozac was one of the first mass-produced and distributed antidepressant prescriptions, hitting the market in 1987. Prozac serves as a pop-culture masthead for antidepressants, as it is referenced in film, literature, and music. Elizabeth Wurtzel’s 1994 memoir Prozac Nation guided readers through the uncertain, sometimes unprovoked, bouts of despondency that accompany major depressive disorder. Wurtzel’s story is a nuanced journey that grapples with, and through, the mental illness complex.
However useful Prozac proves to be in lifting the weight of despondency, some patients experience adverse effects as a result of taking the drug. Most antidepressants come with a black box warning. A black box warning, or boxed warning, is the strongest warning that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires, and indicates that the drug carries potential life-threatening adverse effects. One of the most troubling potential adverse effects for Prozac, and most other antidepressants, is increased thoughts of committing suicide or self-harm.
Since Prozac was released, thousands of people have sued the manufacturer, Eli Lilly and Company, for damages related to suicidal and violent behavior that the medicine was allegedly the cause of. In 2000, Eli Lilly and Company had paid out over $50 million in damages for nearly 30 court cases related to murder and suicide. In addition to being sued for suicide and murder cases, Eli Lilly has been sued for birth defects that Prozac allegedly caused in pregnant women. In addition to heart defects, Prozac is credited for causing neural defects to developing fetuses.
According to the latest study reported by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the number of product recalls for drugs and devices has nearly doubled from 2003 to 2012. Most of these recalls have cause serious injury or fatalities to the patients. The increase of recalls for dangerous drugs and medical devices by the FDA is believed to be due to a more meticulous and proactive approach of the government agency’s safety regulations, while many think that the increase in the recalls prove the FDA’s oversight on the premarket approval process.
The product liability litigation has steadily evolved, becoming a useful tool that consumers us to protect themselves from irresponsible or negligent drug and medical device manufacturers. Dangerous drugs and medical devices that caused harm or death to their patients make their manufacturers liable for product liability lawsuits. Sadly, there are manufacturers that put their profits in line first before the safety of their patients. This has resulted to various dangerous medical drugs and devices that have been sold in the market. One of these products is Yaz. The side effects of taking Yaz have been known to cause deep vein thrombosis, stroke, blood clots, and many others. Despite the dangerous side effects, however, Yaz is still being sold in the market, and the only action that the FDA-approved birth control pills has is the black warning label.
Although many of these dangerous drugs and medical devices provide a certain positive effect for their patients, the long-term effects can cause lasting damage that may not be worth the risk. The side effects of Yaz, surgical mesh, metal hip implants, and many others have been pointed out the need for a more intensive product testing before they should be sold to the market. Medical negligence is the most dangerous type of negligence there is because patients trust their health to their doctors, medical professionals, and drug manufacturers. When these dangerous drugs and devices cause devastating side effects, the results can dramatically lower the patient’s quality of life, or even cost them their life. Those who think they have been a victim of such products should seek professional legal help in order to get compensation for the damages that the product has brought. It is also important to file for a lawsuit in order to provide information to other patients about the danger our the drug or product.