All You Need To Know About Juvenile Drug Possession

All You Need To Know About Juvenile Drug Possession

Jan 03

Drug addiction affects not only the adults but also the youth. Substance abuse in the youth happens when a person below 18 years old knowingly controls a regulated drug or substance without a legal reason. While adults who are caught possessing an illegal drug are tried in a regular court, juveniles, on the other hand, are charged and tried in a juvenile court. The cases in these types of court are handled informally.

When a young person is arrested for drugs, they can be subjected to harsh penalties. The charges that will be filed is dependent on the type and amount of drug. To be charged with possession, the prosecution will need to prove three elements:


Young individuals who knowingly and without legal justification has in their possession a controlled or illegal substance can be charged with juvenile drug possession. While being caught possessing marijuana, methamphetamine, or other illegal drugs can result to drug possession charges, possession of oxycontonin is not as long as they have a prescription from their doctor.


To be charged with drug possession, the juvenile should knowingly possess or control the prohibited substance. The prosecutor will have to prove that you were aware that you were possessing or controlling the drug depending on the circumstance of the case. For instance, if the drug was found in your backpack, the court will assume that you had knowledge that the drug was in your possession.


To be charged with possession, the prosecutor only needs to show that the juvenile had control over the area where the drug was found. If the drug was found in their lockers or rooms, the juvenile can be charged with drug possession.

When charged with drug possession, the juvenile could be subjected to any of the following penalties:

Drug Counseling. The court may order the juvenile to attend counseling sessions with hopes that the youth offender can still be rehabilitated.

Probation. When placed on probation, the juvenile offender needs to meet specific terms. For instance, they may be asked to attend school regularly, maintain or find a job, or attend drug counseling.

Diversion. Just like in probation, diversion will require the juvenile to comply with certain rules. They need not get an order from the court when attending a diversion program. Successful completion of the program could mean dismissal of the charges.

Detention. Detention could involve home confinement, placement in a foster family or guardian, juvenile home, or detention center.

What To Do After A Slip And Fall Accident

What To Do After A Slip And Fall Accident

Nov 06

Slip and fall accidents are the most common types of incidents that happen in the construction site. These types of accidents can happen even in a fair weather. The surface need not be snowy or icy for a worker to be involved in such accidents. Slip and fall is covered in premises liability claims. If you get injured while inside company premises, you may be entitled to receive compensation from it.

Philadelphia slip and fall lawyers are well aware of the devastating consequence of a slip and fall accident. For this reason, they will help you in filing a slip and fall accident claim. After an accident, you need to take the following steps to recover compensation:

1. Get medical attention

During a slip and fall accident, your medical condition or that of a co-worker is the most important. Before everything else, you should seek medical attention right away if you require it. Your medical records can provide proof of your medical bills should you seek to recover damages.

2. Report the accident

After ensuring the safety of those involved in the accident, the next step is to report the accident to the site owner or any manager. Make sure that they file and submit the report and provide your own copy of the report.

3. Stay calm

In a slip and fall accident, you should stay calm. Being angry or upset will not change the situation. Likewise, by being calm, you will be able to effectively decide on what to do after the accident.

4. Take Photos

To be successful with your case, you need to document everything that transpired during the accident. You can take pictures of the accident site and take note of the date and time of the accident.

5. Provide Information

Get in touch with the witnesses during the accident. Collect their phone numbers and addresses. Their testimony can prove valuable should your case progress.

6. Get legal help

Proving slip and fall accidents can be difficult so you need the help of an experienced attorney.

Three Roof Cleaning Methods Explained

Three Roof Cleaning Methods Explained

Jul 29

Organisms such as algae, lichens and moss can contribute a lot to roof degradation. These substances eat the roof and the longer they are left untreated, the more prone your roof is to damage. According to the website Best Roofing, roof cleaning can help get rid of substances from taking over your roof. Fortunately, there is a wide range of companies that can help clean your roof from stains.

There are three different methods that is commonly used for cleaning your roof and preventing substances such as algae, lichens, and moss to completely destroy your roof. Here we shall discuss each method in detail.

  1. Eco-Friendly

The eco-friendly cleaning method uses products that do not contain toxic chemicals such as chlorine bleach, phosphates, and other chemicals that can damage waterways. It also uses low-pressure rinsing system as well as scrubbing or brushing.

While this method is more expensive, it usually delivers instant and complete results as the organisms are entirely gone before the contractor completes their job.

  1. Chlorine-Bleach

Other roofing contractors use sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) mix in high concentrations combined with other chemicals such as trisodium phosphate or TSP. The mixture is sprayed on the roof and then dried and re-applied several times when needed.

This method is less expensive than other methods as it uses inexpensive chemicals. However, the mixture can be harmful to humans as well as pets as a result of exposure to fumes or fluids. It can also cause permanent damage to plants, trees, grass, and shrubs.

  1. High-Pressure Power Washing

Some companies also use high pressure power washing methods to rid your roof of stains. There are many drawbacks of this method. First of all, it can damage shingle roofs and is also not effective in removing organisms that causes roof stains. More often than not, the algae will return quickly.

Consult a roofing contractor in order to determine the best roof cleaning method that is right for your home.

The “No Refusal Weekends” in Texas: One of the State’s Way to Curb Drunk Driving

The “No Refusal Weekends” in Texas: One of the State’s Way to Curb Drunk Driving

Apr 14

Distracted driving, driving under the influence, and driving above the speed limit, among many others, are all considered driver error, the cause of more than 90% of motor vehicle accidents in the US (and around the world). Annually, motor vehicle accidents reach about five million; more than two million of these accidents result to injuries, while more than 30,000 are fatal.

Since the early 19th century, car crashes has already become a frightening risk of driving. Though rates for injury and death vary from one state to another, one common thing remains constant: the rates are high in all states (some are just higher than others).

The state of Mississippi, which registers 1,000 fatal car crashes every year, appears to be number one in the top 10 most dangerous states to drive in. Studies show that car crashes, in any part of the US, is always higher during major holiday weekends, such as Memorial Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas and New Year’s Eve. It is during these days when drunk driving is at its peak, with so many drivers even driving at high speed despite being intoxicated. Due to this, large cities in the state of Texas, namely, Dallas, Houston, and Austin, saw it fit to mandate the “no refusal weekends,” during which law enforcement officers are authorized to pull over anyone suspected of drunk driving and conduct a blood test to determine a driver’s blood alcohol content level. This mandate is aimed at reducing crashes due to drunk driving.

Impairment is the main reason why drunk driving has been declared illegal. When less sober due to alcohol intoxication, reflexes become slower and the ability to focus on the road, as well as perception, judgment, coordination and reaction time, are affected.

All across the US, the set limit for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level is 0.08% (this is about four regular bottles of beer consumed within an hour. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Mothers Against Drunk Driving® (MADD), it will take about an hour for an average person to metabolize one standard drink, such as a 12 ounce bottle of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of distilled spirit – all have the same amount of alcohol). This means that a driver who is pulled over and registers a 0.08% (or higher) BAC level can be charged with alcohol-impaired driving or driving under the influence (DUI), which is a major traffic violation.

As made clear by a Dallas car accident attorney at the Benton Law Firm, any driver, whose action or non-action causes a car accident, especially one that results to injuries or death, he or she will be held lawfully liable, with the obligation of compensating his or her victims for whatever damages and losses they have been, and will be, made to suffer.

How Dangerous Can Car Accidents Be?

How Dangerous Can Car Accidents Be?

Nov 11

Travel by vehicle has become so commonplace these days that once you get in one, you don’t really think that anything bad can happen to you. Seatbelt on, radio softly playing music from the station of your choice, mirrors in check – you never plan for the worst kind of unexpected to happen until it does. So maybe to satisfy your curiosity, you ask: how dangerous can car accidents be?

Ask any car accident lawyer and the simple fact remains: car accidents are as commonplace as cars themselves. Literally hundreds happen on highways all over the United States (and all over the world) every single day. Sometimes, it can be as harmless as an accidental bump on a car door or even just a scratch on the paint job. Annoying, sure, but relatively harmless compared to situations involving the causes for more serious car accidents like drunk driving, speeding, or even automobile defects.

There are so many kinds of car accidents that it is difficult to think of them as just the generalized debris of crushed metal everywhere. There are some cases wherein you need not even be inside a car in order to fall victim to a car accident – and sadly enough, these are cases that are more than familiar with fatality counts. Because, as any car accident lawyer would be aware, as much as some people come out of these things bruised and broken in more ways than one, there are some unlucky few who don’t make it out at all.

Car accidents can be very dangerous situations to be in, considering all the different factors that could contribute into one happening. It is then also quite complicated to file for legal action and compensation against the guilty party, should this situation ever happen to you.

Highway Defects

Highway Defects

Jul 31

Everyone aspires to drive safely and avoid any cause for accidents. However, even the most careful drivers can fall victim to dangerous car accidents. This often happens because another driver on the road may not be as cautious as they are, and the result could be a tragic accident. This is why we advise drivers to drive “defensively” accounting for other drivers lack of caution. However, even when all drivers are cautious and defensive, the possibility of an accident is still very real. This can occur if the road itself is damaged, defective or neglected. These accidents are tragic In that they are entirely preventable with proper upkeep and repair by the city. It is important for drivers to be aware of these potential dangers so that they may do their best to avoid them.

According to the website of the Jeff Sampson Law Firm, common highway defects a driver could encounter include: shoulder drop-off, water pooling, potholes, uneven pavement, lack of signs, lack of guardrails, objects in the roadway, or municipal negligence. These defects are often the result of negligence by the city who has let the roads decay to the point when they are no longer safely navigable.

Car accidents can result in tragic injuries. In many cases car accidents are just that- accidents. They could not have been prevented by any one party. However in some cases accidents are not the fault of the driver, but were preventable by another party. In cases where the local municipality does not properly upkeep their roads, resulting in an accident, it would be their responsibility to ensure that such accident did not happen. It would not be the drivers fault in these instances, but the responsibility of another to have anticipated and rectified the situation. In these cases the victim of such an accident may be owed certain damages.

PCBs and Cancer

PCBs and Cancer

May 04

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) is an organic compound that poses toxic risks to any person who inhales or ingests it, intentionally or unintentionally. Furthermore, humans can be affected by PCBs through direct contact or consumption of contaminated animals. In order to inform and preserve the people’s health, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted an analysis of tests regarding PCBs potential to cause cancer.

The molecular structure of PCBs does not break down, therefore it persists in the environment regardless of when it was first emitted. Unfortunately, companies in the past, such as Monsanto, have produced liquids that expose the chemical to humans. Monsanto PCBs can lead to detrimental health problems depending on the severity of exposure.

The EPA conducted an inclusive analysis, of which the evidence suggested that PCBs cause cancer in animals. Through research and referencing an experimental study performed on laboratory rats, the EPA was able to determine what PCB mixtures are the most dangerous, and which methods of exposure pose the highest risks.

After analyzing the study on animals, the EPA continued to discuss the PCBs carcinogenicity for humans. Overall, the evidence proved “inconclusive” due to outside factors, such as an inability to correctly identify exposure levels, inadequate sample sizes, and each subject’s amount they smoke, or drink. Because these studies are limited in nature, the EPA was only able to identify a “probable” link between PCBs and cancer.

Overall, evidence suggested a definite link with PCBs ability to cause cancer in animals, and a “probable” link with their carcinogenicity for humans. Supporting these findings, the International Agency for Cancer Research and the National Institute for Occupational Safety Health cite a “probable” and “potential” link, respectively, and the National Toxicology Program finds a “reasonable” one.

Treatment for Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy

Treatment for Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy

Apr 03

Morning sickness, which is referred to in the medical community as nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP), is a problem common to most pregnant women. According to researchers from the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior at Cornell University, around 80 percent or two-thirds of women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester of their pregnancy. It also varies in their degree of intensity. Some women experience symptoms that are mild and can increase in severity over the course of the day. There are also women who experience frequent vomiting and electrolyte imbalance.

Mild cases of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy can be solved through some dietary and lifestyle changes. The American Pregnancy Association suggests the following tips that could help alleviate your discomfort:

  • Eat small but frequent meals to keep your blood sugar at an even level
  • Keep soda crackers by your bed side and eat a few before getting up in the morning
  • Consistently drink fluids in small amounts to avoid getting dehydrated
  • Try to drink fluids before meals to keep your stomach from getting too full when you eat
  • Avoid fatty foods and focus on eating food with protein and carbohydrates instead.
  • Soothe an upset stomach by eating bland or salty foods. Drinking lemonade or ginger ale can also help.
  • Take prenatal vitamins and other supplements before going to bed.
  • Avoid strenuous and stressful activities in the morning.
  • Try to rest and nap as much as you can.
  • Stay in rooms that are well-ventilated to avoid feeling nauseous from particular odors.

With more severe cases of vomiting during pregnancy, medication might be necessary to mitigate the dangers it could cause. Dehydration that results from frequent vomiting might require a hospital stay to help replenish fluids and nutrients you’ve lost. There are also some doctors who might prescribe medication to treat intense symptoms. Drugs are typically prescribed to pregnant women after proper consultation.

It’s important to note that some medication for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy can cause serious side effects. Zofran, for example, has been reportedly linked to several cases of birth defects. According to the website of Zofran lawyers of Williams Kherkher, these cases involve long-term health conditions like congenital heart failure. As such, you should never use drugs to treat symptoms without asking your doctor first.

Why Invest With Self-Storage Facilities?

Why Invest With Self-Storage Facilities?

Mar 22

The option of relocating has been getting easier and easier as of recent years. Some couples find that they no longer have a need to maintain such a large home with all the things that come with it – perhaps the kids have moved out, perhaps it is no longer financially advisable. There might be families that find they have to from state to state on a regular basis, thereby rendering them without an actual, proper permanent residence.

Not even just private citizens have this dilemma as there are some small businesses that also need places to store their equipment for possible further use, such as that of small production companies that may need to stock their equipment and props for future projects. Either way, there has been a demand for a space that need not be inhabited but just protected enough in order to store goods. Storage, really – a warehouse without all the bric-a-brac that comes with having to manage such a large facility. This demand has given birth to that of the self-storage facility industry.

Units of various sizes and states are offered by self-storage facilities as a place where people may deposit their goods for safe keeping for a certain amount of time. The space is rented for an affordable price and the payment method can often be arranged, suiting the needs of the owner. Storing your valuable goods in these spaces can often be more beneficial for your things in the long run as, when stored in facilities like this, your goods are kept well-guarded from not only thieves but also against the uncontrollable forces. This is especially important if you plan to sell the items in the future. They can weather out any sort of weather, whether it be a burning hundred degrees or below freezing, your goods have the option of a climate controlled unit, if that is what you should desire.

Visit a Mopac storage website for more information on what kind of self-storage deal would be the best suited for your lifestyle.

When it is Better to Sell Mineral Rights in Texas

When it is Better to Sell Mineral Rights in Texas

Feb 23

Unlike most residents in other states, many landowners in Texas know about mineral rights; the rich oil and natural gas deposits in the area has made that inevitable. They are also aware that they have the option to sell minerals rights or lease them. What they may not be sure of is whether they should sell or lease.

Selling mineral rights is pretty much like selling any kind of real property. Once you sign the deed of sale, it passes out of your hands. This is not necessarily a bad thing; you get a hefty chunk of change and you don’t have to think about doing anything about your mineral rights anymore. On the other hand, you may regret your decision because you may have been sitting on a fortune once the mining starts.

You could lease it out instead, and hope that the developer hits pay dirt and you would be entitled to royalties (make sure your lease agreement is looked over by a mineral rights lawyer!). The upside of this is that whether your developer acts on the lease or not, you get a monthly payment per acre. The downside is you will not have to option to sell until after the lease expires, which can be a problem when you need the money fast.

If you live in an area that is known to have good sub-surface minerals, then you can probably get a very good price for either selling or leasing. If you are considering a sale, make sure that you do your research and open it up to many interested parties so that you can bid them up. You could list your mineral rights with a mineral rights auction house to get the best deal.

On the other hand, there is no certainty about the value of your mineral rights, you may want to consider leasing them first. You can always decide to sell later when you have more leverage. It is important to note, though, that a drop in the demand for specific minerals can pull down the value of your mineral rights. It is best to lock in a good offer as soon as possible, whether selling or leasing.